Friday, October 29, 2010

Energy and Climate Literacy: An Information Sharing Session -- DOE Conference

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking information as it works to develop an energy literacy framework and an energy companion document to "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science."

This meeting, focused on sharing information on Energy Literacy, will take place at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Conversation will center on the knowledge and skills requisite for an energy literate society.

This meeting will be of special interest to stakeholders in science education, and will be open to the public.

R.S.V.P. to Matthew Inman at:

October 29, 2010
November 1, 2010, 8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

1200 New York Avenue NW
Washington, D.C. 20005

Meeting Objective: To gather information on the development of an Energy Literacy Framework, based on Science Literacy Benchmarks, and research on measuring Energy Literacy.

Proposed Revisions to the Green Guides -- FTC

The Federal Trade Commission proposed revisions to the guidance that it gives marketers to help them avoid making misleading environmental claims. The [summary of proposed changes] are designed to update the Guides and make them easier for companies to understand and use. The changes to the “Green Guides” include new guidance on marketers’ use of product certifications and seals of approval, “renewable energy” claims, “renewable materials” claims, and “carbon offset” claims. The FTC is seeking public comments on the proposed changes until December 10, 2010, after which it will decide which changes to make final.

EPA and NHTSA Propose First-Ever Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Improve Fuel Efficiency of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Regulatory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are announcing a first-ever program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve fuel efficiency of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, such as the largest pickup trucks and vans, semi trucks, and all types and sizes of work trucks and buses in between. These vehicles make up the transportation segment’s second largest contributor to oil consumption and GHG emissions.

See also: Heavy-Duty Regulations

Green Marketing: Understanding the New Legal Landscape -- BNA CLE Webinar

Date: Tuesday, November 09, 2010
Time: 1:00 PM - 2:30 PM (ET)

The Federal Trade Commission has issued revisions to its environmental “Green Guides," which provide comprehensive guidance to advertisers on how to make claims about the environmental attributes of their products and operations. The proposed changes to the guides, which are still subject to comment by industry, will significantly restrict many common "green" advertising claims, requiring more careful qualification and much stronger proof than in the past. In addition, the guides will address many new claims for the first time, such as those regarding carbon offsets, carbon neutrality, renewable content, renewable energy use, and the use of pre-consumer recycled content. The revised guides therefore, will have far-reaching implications for marketers both in their advertising and the way they conduct operations.

In this 90-minute session, Chris Cole and Craig Moyer, partners in the law firm of Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP and experts in advertising law and environmental law, respectively, together with additional guest speakers will review the proposed changes. The session is designed to help you:
• Understand how the guides will shape marketing and legal strategies
• Identify areas where the FTC is likely to take future enforcement
• Strategize how to maximize competitive advantage under the changing standards

Thursday, October 28, 2010

Where Activism Meets Technological Innovation: The Challenge of Environmental Problem Solving -- Pace Academy

Advocacy and technology have each played a part in our environmental successes and failures to date, but to what degree should each be leveraged as we face new environmental challenges? Has advocacy lost its way? Is technology a blessing, curse, or both? This roundtable discussion will explore the relative value of advocacy and technology as well the notion that a union of the two may be our only way forward.

Speakers: John Cronin, Senior Fellow for Environmental Affairs, Pace University
Janisse Ray, Woodrow Wilson Visiting Fellow, Writer, Naturalist, Activist
Andrew C. Revkin, Senior Fellow for Environmental Understanding, Pace University
Welcome by: Nira Herrmann, Dean, Dyson College of Arts and Sciences, Pace University
Moderated by: Michelle D. Land, Director, Pace Academy for Applied Environmental Studies

Monday, Nov. 1, 2010

5:30pm – 6:15pm Reception in Choate House Gallery (Pace Community)
6:30pm – 8:00pm Roundtable in Butcher Suite, Kessel Student Center (all)

RSVP: or 914-422-4077 by Wednesday, Oct. 27th

WINDPOWER Conference & Exhibition

Organized by the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), WINDPOWER Conference & Exhibition brings together thought leaders, industry experts, and investors, and is like no other wind industry trade show in the world. WINDPOWER combines education, exhibition, and networking to capture the energy of the rapidly expanding wind market, creating a venue for business, and bold, forward-looking action.

May 22-25, 2011
Location: Convention Center, Aneheim, CA

Wednesday, October 27, 2010

New Library Acquisitions -- Week of October 25

Climate Change
The weather of the future : heat waves, extreme storms, and other scenes from a climate-changed planet / Heidi Cullen

Climate change and displacement : multidisciplinary perspectives / edited by Jane McAdam

The state of world fisheries and aquaculture / FAO Fisheries Department

Resource economics : an economic approach to natural resource and environmental policy / John C. Bergstrom, Alan Randall

Vital forest graphics

Understanding sea-level rise and variability / edited by John A. Church ... [et al.]

The Toxic Substances Control Act : a practical guide / Miriam V. Gold and Jean Warshaw

Global Wind Energy Outlook 2010

A new study by the Global Wind Energy Council and Greenpeace International, dated October 2010, reports that wind could meet 12% of global power demand by 2020, and up to 22% by 2030. The 1,000 gigawatts (GW) of wind power capacity projected to be installed by 2020 would eliminate the emission of as much as 1.5 billion tons of CO2 every year. By 2030, the world would be spared a total of 34 billion tons of CO2 by 2,300 GW of wind power capacity.

Wind energy is becoming a factor in economic development, now providing more than 600,000 "green collar" jobs both in direct and indirect employment. By 2030, the number of jobs is projected to increase to over 3 million. The report forecasts an increase of up to ten times the current installed capacity in China by 2020, up from just 25 GW at the end of 2009. Wind energy is already a mainstream power generation source in many countries, and it is now deployed in more than 75 countries around the world.

The Great PACE Controversy -- ABA

PACE (or “Property Assessed Clean Energy”) financing is a new mechanism for renewable energy projects intended to help homeowners and other property owners within participating communities finance clean energy generation or energy efficiency improvements.

Under the program, property owners receive financing from municipal PACE financing districts and that financing is secured by a supplemental tax assessment lien on the property. More than 17 states adopted enabling legislation to roll-out PACE financing programs in late 2009 and early 2010.

What are the issues in the PACE controversy and what future does it have? This panel will explore the history and future of the topic.

Date: Tuesday, November 16, 2010
Format: Teleconference and Integrated Visual Webcast
Duration: 90 minutes

12:30 PM-2:00 PM Eastern 11:30 AM-1:00 PM Central
10:30 AM-12:00 PM Mountain 9:30 AM-11:00 AM Pacific

The Deepwater Oil Catastrophe – Where Are We Now? -- ABA Teleconference

One of the largest environmental disasters in U.S. history, the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico, has created a web of legal issues that may take decades to unravel. Of immediate concern is how, and to what extent, businesses and individuals will be compensated for damages sustained as a result of the disaster and whether insurance policies will respond to such claims.

Our panel of insurance coverage practitioners and an environmental economist will present an overview on the insurance coverage issues and the economic impact of the spill, a roadmap for dealing with the substantial and diverse business losses suffered, and insight into other issues affecting recovery whenever a catastrophe like the Gulf Oil crisis affects a nation, including:

• The economic impact of the spill;
• A brief update on the government-mandated claim fund and existing or anticipated litigation;
• The insurance disputes that are likely to arise;
• A discussion of the panoply of insurance policies that might respond to these diverse claims, such as property damage and business interruption policies, all-risk and environmental policies, and economic loss policies.

Date: Wednesday, October 27, 2010
Format: Teleconference and Live Audio Webcast
Duration: 60 minutes

NOAA Arctic Report Card Update for 2010

According to NOAA Record temperatures across Canadian Arctic and Greenland, a reduced summer sea ice cover, record snow cover decreases and links to some Northern Hemisphere weather support the conclusion that a return to previous conditions is unlikely.

DOE Webinar October 27: Using RETScreen to Identify Promising Energy Projects - Webinar

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Assistance Project (TAP) for state and local officials will present a Webinar this Wednesday about a free software tool for screening potential clean energy projects. At the Webinar, you will hear about how to use RETScreen to significantly reduce the cost of pre-feasibility and feasibility studies of potential renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

The presentation will take place October 27, 2010, from 3:00 to 4:15 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time, and is titled "Using RETScreen to Identify the Most Promising Clean Energy Projects."

Register to attend the October 27 Webinar

This Webinar is free of charge, but you must sign up in advance to obtain a URL for the presentation and call-in phone number. You can register online, find information about the presenters, and read background materials and reports on the Webinar section of the DOE Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Web site.

Green Supply Chain - UK Conference

This year's Green Supply Chain focuses on integration between the biorenewable sectors. The conference is a unique opportunity to see a synthesis of the biorenewables industry, from field, to markets, to waste and back again.

With world-class speakers and industry leaders including Dr Jeremy Tomkinson from the NNFCC, Jeremy Woods of Imperial College, Richard Cross of KW Trident, Roger Morton from Axion, Jim Davies of BA, Chris Miles from Econergy and John Baldwin of CNG services.

Location: The Cedar Court Grand Hotel & Spa, Station Rise, York, YO1 6HT
Topic: Integration: The key to a renewable carbon economy
Dates: 04 Nov 2010 - 05 Nov 2010

ACCO Climate Change Leadership Summit & Gala

The Association of Climate Change Officers is inviting climate change leadership from industry, academia, non-profit communities and government for a 2-day program designed to further establish a forum for collaboration and thought leadership.

November 8-9, 2010
Marriott Inn & Conference Center
University of Maryland UC
Hyattsville, Maryland

Program Highlights:
Learn how Federal agencies, sub-national leaders, industry and academia are addressing climate change, from the greenhouse gas emissions related to their operations to the impacts of climate change and related business/market/political forces on their operations and jurisdictions.

Participate in 7 tracks of working group breakout sessions with peers covering a wide-range of topics including:
- Developing clean energy infrastructure
- Fleet management and vehicle fuel sources
- Enterprise management and governance
- National security
- Operationalizing supply chain programs
- Monetizing energy and GHG emissions
- Developing universal standards and metrics
- Stakeholder engagement and external relations
- Workforce education and training
- Developing and managing modern waste systems

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Conserving Habitat through the Federal Farm Bill - A Guide for Land Trusts and Landowners

This Guide from the Defenders of Wildlife provides the information and
tools on Farm Bill conservation programs. It includes:

♦ A concise introduction to the Farm Bill and its conservation programs, the agencies involved and general eligibility requirements;
♦ Detailed but accessible information on each of the most relevant conservation programs offered through the 2008 Farm Bill;
♦ Time-saving tips for choosing the right program, navigating the application process and increasing the competitiveness of your applications to improve
your chances of securing funding;
♦ Recommendations on how to use the Farm Bill strategically and how to influence its implementation and local priorities;
♦ Case studies to illustrate how land managers have concretely and creatively leveraged Farm Bill dollars to maximize benefits;
♦ Guidance on working with local U.S. Department of Agriculture agency representatives and partnering with conservation organizations, landowners and others.

It Takes A Region: A Working Conference to Build our Northeast Food System

The 18th conference and annual meeting of the Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Working Group (NESAWG)

November 12-13, 2010 with Pre-Conference Trainings, November 11

Desmond Hotel and Conference Center, Albany, NY

2010 Marine Ecosystem Status and Trends Report -- Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat

This report from the Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (Science Advisory Report 2010/030), dated July 2010 finds:

 The status and trends of Canadian marine ecozones are changing owing to a suite of different factors.
 Biological and ecological effects (e.g. increased natural species mortality, species range expansions and contractions, and changes in fish size, assemblages, and community structure) are occurring; however their impact on ecosystems is not always well understood.
 Climate change and oceanographic variability are affecting most Canadian marine ecozones. In particular, ocean acidification is known to be impacting several ecozones and is an emerging issue in the others.
 A decline in many fish stocks has occurred on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts as a result of commercial overexploitation. Although management measures have been implemented for most species, recovery has been limited in most cases.
 Legacy contaminants, like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for example, are decreasing, however the incidence of emerging contaminants (e.g. brominated flame retardants) are becoming an issue in most ecozones.
 Industry and development have, or are threatening to, impact most ecosystems. The coastal zone is particularly vulnerable and is of concern as these areas are considered highly productive ecosystems.
 Some marine mammals that were overexploited in the past are now recovering. For example: bowhead, beluga, and narwhal in the Arctic, and sea otters, stellar sea lions, harbour seals, killer whales, humpbacks, and gray whales in the Pacific.
 Populations of grey seals in the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf ecozone and harp seals in the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves ecozone have increased dramatically.

Protect Your Land Trust! Drafting Conflict of Interest and Whistleblower Policies -- Land Trust Alliance Webcast

Date and Time of Webinar: November 9, 2010 / 7:00 pm ET
Audience: Beginner-Intermediate
Cost: $50
Capacity: 30 connections

The IRS New Form 990 asks nonprofits to provide considerably more information concerning their governance, their activities and their policies. Needed written policies include those covering conflicts of interest and whistleblowers. Do you have these policies and do you follow them consistently? If you do, are they up-to-date and contain current best practices? And how should your organization use these policies to avoid and manage potentially damaging issues involving insiders? If you do not have good answers to these questions, this webinar is for you.

You will learn:
• What the IRS expects
• Best current practices to include in your policies
• How to use your policies effectively to avoid or manage problems

Blending Conservation Design and the New Urbanism -- APA Webinar

This webinar sponsored by the Connecticut chapter of the American Planning Association describes the crossover between Conservation Design and the New Urbanism, showing how they can be blended. In areas served by public water and sewer, conservation design techniques can be readily combined with TND principles to create walkable, mixed-use neighborhoods, often involving infill projects and incremental growth around the community's outer edges.

This program shows how higher density neighborhoods can be designed around the central organizing principle of an open space network and incorporate distinctive features of the natural and cultural landscape, producing more sustainable results. This program is based largely on my last two books: Envisioning Better Communities and Crossroads, Hamlet, Village, Town. This webcast is sponsored by the Connecticut Chapter.

Thu, Oct 28, 2010 1:00 PM - 2:30 PM EDT

Southwest Border: More Timely Border Patrol Access and Training Could Improve Security Operations and Natural Resource Protection on Federal Lands

This Report to Congressional Requesters (GAO-11-38) dated, October 19, 2010 finds that to improve the effectiveness of Border Patrol operations while also protecting cultural and natural resources on federal lands along the southwestern border, we recommend that the Secretaries of Homeland Security, the Interior, and Agriculture take the following two actions:

•To help expedite Border Patrol’s access to federal lands, the agencies should, when and where appropriate, (a) enter into agreements that provide for Customs and Border Protection to use its own resources to pay for or to conduct the required environmental and historic property assessments and (b) prepare programmatic National Environmental Policy Act documents for Border Patrol activities in areas where additional access may be needed.

•As DHS, Interior, and the Forest Service continue developing a national training module on environmental and cultural resource stewardship, the agencies should incorporate the input of Border Patrol agents and land managers into the design and development of training content, which may include training that is recurring, area-specific, and provided by land managers.

E3 Memorandum of Understanding -- EPA

Working on a pilot basis since 2009, the E3 Initiative became official with the September 25, 2010, signing of a memorandum of understanding among its federal agency sponsors: EPA, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Energy, the Department of Labor and the Small Business Administration.

Evolving from the Green Suppliers Network, the E3 Initiative is a coordinated federal and local technical assistance initiative to help manufacturers adapt and thrive in a new business era focused on sustainability. The program provides technical assessments of production processes and training in four key areas:

- Lean
- Clean
- Energy
- Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Depending on the processes of a company, either large or small, the assessments and training target opportunities to:

- Maximize energy efficiency
- Reduce environmental wastes
- Identify opportunities for reducing carbon emissions
- Promote sustainable manufacturing practices and growth
- Reduce business costs

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Climate Action Plan, Town of Bedford -- 2010 Planning Achievement Award Winner

Westchester Municipal Planning Federation
2010 Planning Achievement Award Winner
Climate Action Plan, Town of Bedford

Come hear the people that galvanized a community into action speak about Westchester’s first municipal blueprint for reducing community-wide greenhouse emissions.

Wednesday, October 27, 2010 at 7 p.m.
Bedford Town Hall
321 Bedford Road
Bedford Hills, NY 10507

RSVP BY OCTOBER 25: Patricia Einhorn,
FOR INFORMATION: Linda Cooper,, 914.218-7005

Lee Roberts
Ellen Conrad
Mary Beth Kass
Tom Bregman
Mark Thielking
Town of Bedford Supervisor
Co-chair, Bedford 2020
Chair, Bedford Energy Advisory Panel
and Co-chair Bedford 2020
Project Director, Town of Bedford/
Northern Westchester Energy
Action Coalition Retrofit Program
Town of Bedford Director of Energy
Resources and Chair, Town of Bedford
Retrofit Advisory Committee

Rediscovering Sustainable Development Law In the Community and In Legal Practice -- Pace Law School Conference

This half-day conference explores the emergence of sustainable development practices in communities, law firms, and government programs from the federal to municipal level. Learn how sustainability draws together affordable housing, environmental protection, economic development, and climate change mitigation. In government programs, it integrates initiatives from HUD, EPA, and DOT, which are instrumental in helping with local green building efforts, sustainable neighborhoods, and transportation strategies. The 40-year history of sustainable development law will serve as the backdrop for presentations on its modern and practical applications. Registration is complimentary. Lunch will be provided.

When: Friday, October 22, 2010 (8:30 a.m. – 1:30 p.m.)
Where: New York State Judicial Institute, Pace Law School, White Plains, NY

Sustainable Development Law: Keeping Pace -- James D. Hopkins Professor of Law Memorial Lecture

Professor John R. Nolon has been named as the James D. Hopkins Professor of Law for 2009-2011 academic years. His Hopkins Memorial lecture will address Sustainable Development. The Lecture will take place on November November 10, 2010 at 4:00PM in the Judicial Institute Located at the Pace Law School campus, 78 North Broadway, White Plains, NY.

Pace Environmental Law Students Take on Big Coal

Student interns at the Pace Environmental Litigation Clinic, under the supervision of law professors Karl S. Coplan, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., and Daniel Estrin, took the first step today in bringing a lawsuit against three mining companies in Kentucky for violations of the Clean Water Act.

Representing a coalition of environmental and social justice organizations and private citizens, including Appalachian Voices, Kentuckians for the Commonwealth, Kentucky Riverkeeper, and Waterkeeper Alliance, they filed a sixty-day notice letter alleging that the companies ICG Knott County, ICG Hazard, and Frasure Creek Mining, a subsidiary of Trinity Coal, exceeded pollution discharge limits in their permits, consistently failed to conduct the required monitoring of their discharges and, in many cases, submitted false monitoring data to the state agencies charged with protecting the public. Joining in the lawsuit were several local residents impacted by the dumping of mining waste into Kentucky’s waterways.

Energy Derivatives Regulation after Dodd-Frank ALI-ABA CLE

This telephone conference takes place on Wednesday October 27, 2010 12:30 pm to 1:45 pm Eastern Daylight Time.

Topic: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and its affect on energy companies.

One example is, a company that currently uses OTC contracts to trade fuel, power, emissions or other commodities may be required, if no exemption applies, to clear such swaps with a clearinghouse and trade them through an exchange. This in turn may increase a company's cost of hedging and affect its liquidity.

Issues of joint jurisdiction between the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) further complicate the operation of energy companies whose activities may now cause them, for regulatory purposes, to report to both commissions.

Faculty for this seminar include Ann A. Hawkins, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP, who concentrates in the areas of development, financing, acquisition and disposition of energy projects; Mark D. Young, also with Skadden Arps, who has practiced within and before the CFTC; and Dr. Sharon Brown-Hruska, an economist who served as a CFTC Commissioner and Acting Chair. Together they will outline the new Dodd Frank requirements that affect energy derivatives, and discuss the economic impact of the new regulations.

Monday, October 18, 2010

Strategies to Cut Energy Use by 50% in Commercial Buildings -- DOE Webinar

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building Technologies Program is offering a Webinar on Thursday, October 28, 2010, from 12:00 - 1:30 p.m. Eastern titled "Strategies to Cut Energy Use by 50% in Commercial Buildings."

Strategic Plan for State Forest Management (DRAFT) -- NY DEC

This draft plan and generic environmental impact statement (GEIS) by the New York State Department of Enivironmental Conservation will guide the future management of the state's 786,329-acre State Forest holdings and is being made available for public review and comment. Key goals focus on ecosystem health and diversity, economic benefits, recreational opportunities, forest conservation and sustainable management.

Comment Period
Public comment is encouraged and will be accepted September 1, 2010 through 4:45 p.m., Friday, October 29, 2010. Please review the plan and submit comments by email to State Forest Strategic Plan. Comments may also be mailed to Strategic Plan for State Forest Management, NYS DEC, 625 Broadway, Albany, NY 12233-4255.

Our Great Lakes Water Resources: Conserving and Protecting Our Water Today for Use Tomorrow -- NY DEC

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, in response to a 2008 directive of the New York State Legislature, the Great Lakes Basin Advisory Council (GLBAC) has released its final report on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact (Compact). The report is meant to guide New York's implementation of the requirements of the Compact. It indentifies key recommendations to ensure sustainable protections for New York's Great Lakes watershed.

Key Report Recommendations include:

• Passing final legislation to regulate water withdrawals statewide
• Increasing information collection on aquifer and stream flows
• Establishing incentives to promote business and residential water conservation
• Investing substantially to reduce leaks in water infrastructure
The Council believes that the effort invested in this document will support New York's Governor, Legislature and citizens in fully implementing the Compact.

New York State Hazardous Waste Facility Siting Plan -- NY DEC

The Siting Plan, produced by the New York State Department of Environmental conservation and required by ECL Section 27-1102, is primarily intended to assess the State's capacity for managing hazardous waste in accordance with State and Federal law, and to assure adequate availability of industrial hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities into the future. The final adoption of a Siting Plan is a prerequisite for the siting or significant expansion of certain new hazardous waste facilities in New York.

Potential Environmental Impacts: The Plan itself is a guidance document and has no direct environmental impacts. The GEIS does not replace the need for a separate and distinct site-specific EIS for any hazardous waste management facility that is proposed to be sited or expanded in New York State in the future.

New Library Acquisitions -- Week of October 18, 2010

Arctic legal regime for environmental protection / Linda Nowlan

Bobby [videorecording] / Bold Films ; produced by Edward Bass, Michel Litvak, Holly Wiersma ; written by Emilio Estevez ; directed by Emilio Estevez

Robert Kennedy : his life / Evan Thomas

Cartagena Protocol.
An explanatory guide to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety / Ruth Mackenzie ... [et al.], in cooperation with Alfonso Ascencio ... [et al.]

Comparative Law.
Environmental law in the South Pacific : consolidated report of the reviews of environmental law in the Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Kingdom of Tonga, Republic of the Marshall Islands and Solomon Islands / edited by Ben Boer ; legal reviews conducted as follows: Cook Islands, Mere Pulea ; Federated States of Micronesia, Elizabeth Harding ; Kingdom of Tonga, Mere Pulea ; Republic of the Marshall Islands, Elizabeth Harding ; Solomon Islands, Ben Boer

Energy efficient cities : assessment tools and benchmarking practices / edited by Ranjan K. Bose

International Law.
International judicial control of environmental protection : standard setting, compliance control, and the development of international environmental law by the international judiciary / Yasuhiro Shigeta

National Parks Belong at the Heart of America's Great Outdoors -- NPCA

NPCA's most recent report builds on public comments gathered at regional listening sessions across the country and on the combined policy expertise of the organization to highlight key recommendations for our national parks within the administration's America's Great Outdoors Initiative.

* Connecting Americans to healthy outdoor recreation;
* Providing educational opportunities for young people; and
* Promoting beyond-borders management of national parks and adjacent lands.

Memorandum of Understanding between the US EPA and the MEP of China concerning cooperation on environmental policy -- EPA

This Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and China on environmental protection provides for cooperation in the areas of air, and water pollution, toxics, solid wastes, development, policy and enforcement.

Friday, October 15, 2010

RE-Powering America’s Land Initiative Management Plan

EPA launched RE-Powering America’s Land: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites to encourage the siting of renewable energy facilities on thousands of currently and formerly contaminated properties across the nation. This management plan builds on the progress that’s been made to date under this initiative, and lays out key areas that EPA will focus on over the next two years.

Big Oil Goes to College - An Analysis of 10 Research Collaboration Contracts between Leading Energy Companies and Major U.S. Universities

This report from the Center for American Progress, dated October 2010, finds that the 10 contracts examined in this report indicate that the balance between Big Oil’s commercial interests and the university’s commitment to independent academic research, high-quality science, and academic freedom seems to have tilted in favor of Big Oil. As the author argues, this balance can be righted through:

• More careful oversight of industry-sponsored research contracts signed by U.S. universities to protect their core academic functions, including the production of reliable, high-quality, public knowledge.

• Adoption of stronger contract language designed to safeguard university independence, impartial peer review, and the production of high-quality public knowledge.

The federal government, too, can include these important contract provisions and safeguards in its Requests for Proposals, or RFPs, when it issues grant guidelines for new clean-energy R&D funds.

American Society for Environmental History 2011 Conference

This Conference will take place on April 12-17, 2011 at the Arizona State University.

The conference will be hosted by Arizona State University, one of the country's outstanding innovators in sustainability studies, and will be held at the Wyndham Hotel in downtown Phoenix. At the height of springtime, we will have an outstanding set of field trips and special events, including a full day birding trip to the Pinal Mountains before the conference (Tuesday evening and all day Wednesday), an overnight trip to the Grand Canyon after the conference, and half-day field trips on Friday to explore water development, urban planning, archaeological sites, desert wetlands, and more. Additional special events will include a sustainability workshop sponsored by ASU's School of Sustainability and the Decision Center for a Desert City, and a workshop sponsored by the US Forest Service.

Thursday, October 14, 2010

Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions

This article from the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Brian C. O'Neilla, Michael Daltonb, Regina Fuchsc, Leiwen Jianga, Shonali Pachauric, and Katarina Zigovad argues that a reduction in population would offset some aspects of climate change.

"Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy–economic growth model that accounts for a range of demographic dynamics, we show that slowing population growth could provide 16–29% of the emissions reductions suggested to be necessary by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change. We also find that aging and urbanization can substantially influence emissions in particular world regions." (From the abstract)

Progress Report of the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force: Recommended Actions in Support of a National Climate Change Adaptation ...

This Progress Report of the Interagancy Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, dated October 5, 2010, from the White House Council of Environmental Quality finds that the scope, severity, and pace of future climate change impacts are difficult to predict. However, observations and long-term scientific trends indicate that the potential impacts of a changing climate on society and the environment will be significant. Projected impacts include more frequent heat waves and high-intensity precipitation events, rising sea levels, ocean acidification, and more prolonged

The year-round average air temperature in the United States has already risen by more than 2 degress F. over the past 50 years and is projected to increase further in the future. On average, wet areas of the United States will become wetter and dry areas will become drier. Adding to the challenge of responding to these impacts, climate-related changes do not act in isolation but rather interact with and often
exacerbate the impacts of other non-climatic stressors such as habitat destruction, overharvesting, and pollution.

Recent Law Review Articles -- October 2010

Toth, Bende. Public participation and democracy in practice—Aarhus Convention principles as democratic institution building in the developing world. 30 J. Land, Res. & Envtl. L. 295-330 (2010).

Note. Justifying the Chevron doctrine: insights from the rule of lenity. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 467 U.S. 837, 1984.) 123 Harv. L. Rev. 2043-2064 (2010).

Harris, Sunni R. Comment. Green v. Alpharma, Inc.: the casual connection between the use of growth hormones in chicken feed and cancer and its impact on the agricultural industry. (Green v. Alpharma, Inc., 284 S.W.3d 29, 2008.) 2 Ky. J. Equine, Agri., & Nat. Resources L. 261-269 (2009-2010).

Widener, Michael N. Collective bargaining as a dispute-reduction vehicle accommodating contrary animal welfare agendas. 2 Ky. J. Equine, Agri., & Nat. Resources L. 191-218 (2009-2010).

Dresser, Sara J. Note. Safeguarding the Arctic from accidental oil pollution: the need for a binding, region-specific shipping regime. 16 Sw. J. Int’l L. 507-550 (2010).

Morrefield, Michael A. Note. Have the sons disobeyed their fathers? The Massachusetts’ standing analysis after ... (Center for Biological Diversity v. United States Department of Interior, 563 F.3d 466, 2009) 17 Mo. Envtl. L. & Pol’y Rev. 391-414 (2010).

Green, Shelby D. Understanding CERCLA through Webster's New World Dictionary and state common law: forestalling the federalization of property law. 44 New Eng. L. Rev. 835-868 (2010).

Guo, Robert M. Note. Reasonable bases for apportioning harm under CERCLA. 37 Ecology L.Q. 317-352 (2010).

Schreck, Addison J. Comment. Empaneling the peers of polluters: obtaining a jury trial under the OPA and CERCLA as explained in ... (United States v. Viking Res., Inc., 607 F. Supp. 2d 808, 2009.) 2 Ky. J. Equine, Agri., & Nat. Resources L. 293-303 (2009-2010).

Gradijan, Francis. Note. Dispute resolution and power permitting in China. 5 Tex. J. Oil Gas & Energy L. 357-398 (2009-2010).

Elliott, E. Donald. Lessons from implementing the 1990 CAA Amendments. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10592-10596 (2010).

Raftery, Christopher. Note. Restoring Webster’s definition of “best” under the Clean Air Act. 37 Ecology L.Q. 595-624 (2010).

Moreno, Robert B. Note. Filling the regulatory gap: a proposal for restructuring the Clean Water Act’s two-permit system. 37 Ecology L.Q. 285-316 (2010).

Camacho, Alejandro E. Assisted migration: redefining nature and natural resource law under climate change. 27 Yale J. on Reg. 171-255 (2010).

Gerrard, Michael B. Defining the challenge in implementing climate change policy. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10579-10584 (2010).

Silveira da Rocha Sampaio, Rômulo. Regulating climate change risk at the local level—the Denver experience: greenprint or greenwash? 17 Mo. Envtl. L. & Pol’y Rev. 356-390 (2010).

Stone, Chad. Addressing the impact of climate change legislation on low-income households. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10555-10561 (2010).

Three Degrees Conference on the Law of Climate Change and Human Rights. Introduction by Jennifer K. Barcelos, Gregory A. Hicks and Jennifer Marlow; articles by Randall S. Abate, Deepa Badrinarayana and Amy Sinden. 85 Wash. L. Rev. 193-353 (2010).

Vandenbergh, Michael P. and Mark A. Cohen. Climate change governance: boundaries and leakage. 18 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 221-292 (2010).

Johnson, Stephen M. The Roberts Court and the environment. 37 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 317-363 (2010).

Pottenger, Samantha G. Comment. Biodiversity conservation v. hydropower dams: can saving the fish save the Mekong River Basin? 22 Pac. McGeorge Global Bus. & Dev. L.J. 111-133 (2009).

Multistate Decision Making for Renewable Energy and Transmission: Spotlight on Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Articles by David J. Hurlbut, Ashley C. Brown, Jim Rossi and Robin Kundis Craig. 81 U. Colo. L. Rev. 677-832 (2010).

Quinn, Elias L. and Adam L. Reed. Envisioning the smart grid: network architecture, information control, and the public policy balancing act. 81 U. Colo. L. Rev. 833-892 (2010).

Danish, Kyle and Megan Ceronsky. International offsets and U.S. climate legislation. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10610-10615 (2010).

Forrister, Dirk. U.S. climate change policy implementation: effective use of carbon markets for cost savings. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10585-10591 (2010).

Kamel, Alexandra. Note. Size, biology, and culture: persistence as an indicator of significant portions of range under the Endangered Species Act. 37 Ecology L.Q. 525-560 (2010).

Lum, Katy. Note. One fish, two fish: suggestions for the treatment of hatchery fish under the Endangered Species Act. 37 Ecology L.Q. 561-594 (2010).

Middleton, Brandon M. Restoring tradition: the inapplicability of TVA v. Hill’s Endangered Species Act injunctive relief standard to preliminary injunctive relief of non-federal actors. 17 Mo. Envtl. L. & Pol’y Rev. 318-355 (2010).

Scaccia, Brian. Note. “Taking” a different tack on just compensation claims arising out of the Endangered Species Act. 37 Ecology L.Q. 655-682 (2010).

Schiff, Damien M. and Joshua P. Thompson. The distinct population segment provision of the Endangered Species Act and the lack thereof in the California Endangered Species Act. 30 J. Land, Res. & Envtl. L. 267-294 (2010).

Spjute, Robert Tee. Note. Weathering the storm: finding safe harbors in ESA controversy. 30 J. Land, Res. & Envtl. L. 331-355 (2010).

Cox, Seth. A regulatory reinterpretation to blow away dirty energy? 17 Mo. Envtl. L. & Pol’y Rev. 258-317 (2010).

Sieck, Daniel R. Note. Confronting the obsolescing bargain: transacting around political risk in developing and transitioning economies through renewable energy foreign direct investment. 33 Suffolk Transnat’l L. Rev. 319-345 (2010).

Recent developments in Texas, United States, and international energy law. 5 Tex. J. Oil Gas & Energy L. 399-451 (2009-2010).

Conlan, James P. "O, for a muse of fire": energy law as federal ceremony. 5 Envtl. & Energy L. & Pol'y J. 1-59 (2010).

Genaw, Jillian L. Note. Offshore drilling in the United States and the expansion of Cuba’s oil program: a discussion of environmental policy. 20 Ind. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 47-77 (2010).

Odom, Olivia. Note. Energy v. water. 37 Ecology L.Q. 353-380 (2010).

Environmental law updates. 17 Mo. Envtl. L. & Pol’y Rev. 472-491 (2010).

Recent developments. In the Congress. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10616-10618 (2010).

Recent developments. In the courts. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10618-10620 (2010).

Recent developments. In the federal agencies. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10620-10624 (2010).

Salkin, Patricia E. Cooperative federalism and climate change: new meaning to “think globally—act locally.” 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10562-10571 (2010).

The Common Cause Agenda in the Great Lakes—The Intersection of Canada-United States Trade, Energy, Environment, and Society in the Great Lakes Basin. Dianne Anderson, session chair; Mark Shanahan, speaker. 34 Can.-U.S. L.J. 347-374 (2010).

Stack, Nicholas T. Note. Great Lakes Compact and an Ohio constitutional amendment: local protectionism and regional cooperation. 37 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 493-522 (2010).

Davis, Margaret S. Recent development. Uncertainty in science and policy: calculating the net climate benefit of forestry-based offsets. 11 N.C. J.L. & Tech. 319-349 (2010).

Horne, Jennifer Skougard. Note. Getting from here to there: devising an optimal regulatory model for CO2 transport in a new carbon capture and sequestration industry. 30 J. Land, Res. & Envtl. L. 357-398 (2010).

Vandenbergh, Michael P., et al. Implementing the behavioral wedge: designing and adopting effective carbon emissions reduction programs. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10547-10554 (2010).

Wagner, Wendy, Elizabeth Fisher and Pasky Pascual. Misunderstanding models in environmental and public health regulation. 18 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 293-356 (2010).

Iaione, Christian. The tragedy of urban roads: saving cities from choking, calling on citizens to combat climate change. 37 Fordham Urb. L.J. 889-951 (2010).

Monteith, Emily. Comment. Lost in translation: discerning the international equivalent of the National Register of Historic Places. 59 DePaul L. Rev. 1017-1051 (2010).

Dator, Mariel S. Note. Green building regulations: extending mandates to the residential sector. 37 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 393-424 (2010).

Jaeger, Kathleen. Environmental claims under the Alien Tort Statute. 28 Berkeley J. Int’l L. 519-536 (2010).

Pillai, Bharathi. Note. Moving forward to 2012: an evaluation of the clean development mechanism. 18 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 357-411 (2010).

Crow, Adrianne C. Note. Developing community gardens: removing barriers to improve our society. 2 Ky. J. Equine, Agri., & Nat. Resources L. 219-234 (2009-2010).

McCarty, Richard T. Note. Winter v. NRDC: the Navy, submarines, active sonar, and whales—an analysis of the Ninth Circuit review and the Roberts Court extension of the military deference doctrine. (Winter v. Natural Res. Def. Council, 129 S. Ct. 365, 2008.) 47 Hous. L. Rev. 489-527 (2010).

Natural Resources and Environmental Law Issue. Foreword by Zachary P. Mountin; articles by David J. Hurlbut, Ashley C. Brown, Jim Rossi, Robin Kundis Craig, Elias L. Quinn and Adam L. Reed; comment by Kelly Crandall. 81 U. Colo. L. Rev. 677-958 (2010).

Lopez, Amanda. Note. NEPA in the post-9/11 world. 37 Ecology L.Q. 423-449 (2010).

Smith, Thomas C. Note. Terrorist attacks & NEPA: the Third Circuit creates a split in authority. 17 Mo. Envtl. L. & Pol’y Rev. 415-435 (2010).

Murphy, Patrick J. Gone fission: federal preemption and the resurgence of the nuclear industry (the one that almost got away). 82 Temp. L. Rev. 863-889 (2009).

Meyer, Zach. Comment. Private commercialization of space in an international regime: a proposal for a space district. 30 Nw. J. Int’l L. & Bus. 241-261 (2010).

Cook, Kara. Note. The middle ground of pesticide regulation: why EPA should use a watershed-based permitting scheme in its new aquatic pesticides rule. 37 Ecology L.Q. 451-486 (2010).

‘Wokoro, J. Nna Emeka. Beyond petroleum production to community development: international oil companies as proxy governments. 5 Tex. J. Oil Gas & Energy L. 323-356 (2009-2010).

Donahue, Debra L. Trampling the public trust. 37 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 257-316 (2010).

Emerging Legal Issues in the Great Lakes Such as the Public Trust Doctrine, Subterranean Rights and Municipal Regulatory Arrangements. Kendra Fogarty, session chair; David Brooks, Chris A. Shafer and David Ullrich, speakers. 34 Can.-U.S. L.J. 279-319 (2010).

Spiegel, Danielle. Note. Can the public trust doctrine save western groundwater? 18 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 412-453 (2010).

Stoner, Ivan M. Comment. Leading a judge to water: in search of a more fully formed Washington public trust doctrine. 85 Wash. L. Rev. 391-423 (2010).

Gerson, Zachary H. The unrealized authority of the Fish and Wildlife Service to protect national wildlife refuges from surface disturbance due to private mineral rights. 29 Stan. Envtl. L.J. 181-245 (2010).

Hofman, Danielle. Note. The road to nowhere: the Ninth Circuit upholds nation-wide protection of inventoried roadless areas in National Forests. 17 Mo. Envtl. L. & Pol’y Rev. 454-471 (2010).

Lee, Michelle Fon Anne. Note. Surviving ... (Summers v. Earth Island Inst., 129 S. Ct. 1142, 2009.) 37 Ecology L.Q. 381-422 (2010).

Voicu, Monica. Note. At a dead end: the need for congressional direction in the roadless area management debate. 37 Ecology L.Q. 487-523 (2010).

Crandall, Kelly. Comment. Trust and the green consumer: the fight for accountability in renewable energy credits. 81 U. Colo. L. Rev. 893-958 (2010).

Gershonowitz, Aaron. The role of science in environmental litigation: courts give deference to agency experts except when they don’t. 39 Sw. L. Rev. 233-264 (2009).

Joly, Julie Lurman, Joel Reynolds and Martin Robards. Recognizing when the “best scientific data available” isn’t. 29 Stan. Envtl. L.J. 247-282 (2010).

Dernbach, John C., Robert B. McKinstry Jr. and Thomas D. Peterson. Making the states full partners in a national climate change effort: a necessary element for sustainable economic development. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10597-10609 (2010).

Leslie, Derek. Comment. Federal preemption in Metro Taxicab Board of Trade v. City of New York: a red light for local green laws? (Metro Taxicab Bd. of Trade v. City of New York, 633 F. Supp. 2d 83, 2009.) 2 Ky. J. Equine, Agri., & Nat. Resources L. 283-292 (2009-2010).

Humphrey, Douglas M. Note. The “interior” revenue service: the Tax Code as a vehicle for third-party enforcement of conservation easements. 37 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 425-461 (2010).

Hearne, Mark F., II, Lindsay Brinton and Meghan Largent. The Trails Act: railroading property owners and taxpayers for more than a quarter century. 45 Real Prop. Tr. & Est. L.J. 115-178 (2010).

Canada-United States Relations from the International Boundary Waters Treaty, the Auto Pact, the Free Trade Agreement, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Security and Prosperity Partnership, and Beyond: Lessons Learned. David Crane, session chair; James Blanchard, Michael Kergin and Jessica LeCroy, speakers. 34 Can.-U.S. L.J. 165-192 (2010).

Cosens, Barbara. Transboundary river governance in the face of uncertainty: resilience theory and the Columbia River Treaty. 30 J. Land, Res. & Envtl. L. 229-265 (2010).

Martella, Roger R., Jr.. Climate change legislation and regulation: impacts on transportation and manufacturing. 40 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10572-10578 (2010).

Davis, Steven M. The politics of urban natural areas management at the local level: a case study. 2 Ky. J. Equine, Agri., & Nat. Resources L. 127-155 (2009-2010).

Goeringer, L. Paul. A practitioner’s guide to the Oklahoma Groundwater Act: how to dip your bread into the gravy while it is still hot. 2 Ky. J. Equine, Agri., & Nat. Resources L. 157-190 (2009-2010).

Johnson, Nathan C. Comment. Protecting our water compacts: the looming threat of unilateral congressional interaction. 2010 Wis. L. Rev. 875-905.

Witherspoon, Travis. Recent development. Into the well: desired future conditions and the emergence of groundwater as the new senior water right. 5 Envtl. & Energy L. & Pol'y J. 166-182 (2010).

Adams, Jessica. One little word can make all the difference: literal interpretation leads to lake destruction. 17 Mo. Envtl. L. & Pol’y Rev. 436-453 (2010).

Botwinick, Dina, Jennifer Effron and John Huang. Saving mom and pop: zoning and legislating for small and local business retention. 18 J.L. & Pol’y 607-653 (2010).

Post-Partisan Power: How a Limited and Direct Approach to Energy Innovation Can Deliver Clean, Cheap Energy, Economic Productivity, & National...

This white paper, the result of the combined efforts of a group of think tanks coming from different sides of the political spectrum (American enterprise Institute, The Brookings Institute, and the Breakthrough Institute), argues that America is once again at an energy crossroads, but the choices it faces are not those that many aligned with either the right or the left have imagined. The choice is not, as liberals often maintain, between global warming apocalypse or mandating the widespread adoption of today’s solar, wind, and electric car technologies. Nor is the choice, as conservatives have argued, between an economy wrecked by liberal
global warming policies or expanding oil drilling and nuclear power. The choice is whether America will focus on what really matters when it comes to energy technology and on what the vast majority of Americans want: innovation.

Though Washington and policy elites were polarized by the ‘climate wars’ of the last decade, Americans as a whole remain largely united in their attitudes toward energy policy. They are grateful for cheap fossil energy and are willing to pay modestly more for affordable, cleaner energy sources. The most popular and effective energy policy is technology innovation aimed at making clean energy sources better and
cheaper. This white paper is our contribution to advancing a new public policy consensus that starts from this place of post-partisan agreement.

The paper recommends that we:
- Invest in Energy Science and Education
- Overhaul the Energy Innovation System
- Reform Energy Subsidies and Use Military Procurement and Competitive Deployment Incentives to Drive Price Declines
- Internalize the Cost of Energy Modernization and Ensure Investments Do Not Add to the Deficit

Water Pollution Convictions for 2010 Down -- TRAC

This report from the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC) states that the latest available data from the Justice Department show that during the first ten months of FY 2010 the government reported 23 new convictions for these matters. Those cases had a lead charge of "33 USC 1319 - Water Pollution - Enforcement". If this activity continues at the same pace, the annual total of convictions will be 28 for this fiscal year. According to the case-by-case information analyzed by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC), this estimate is down 12.5% over the past fiscal year when the number of convictions totaled 32.

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Role of Governments in Promoting Corporate Responsibility and Private Sector Engagement in Development

This Report fromt he United Nations Global Compact finds that the economic crisis that so many countries have been experiencing has put the spotlight on the need for more corporate responsibility and what governments can do to promote it. In addition, interest in innovative ways to help stretch government resources for development has risen. Responsible business, as the key driver of sustainable development, also has a lot to offer in the way of resources, expertise, distribution networks, personnel, and so forth.

Against this backdrop, this report focuses on two dimensions of the relationship between governments and business. The first explores trends in public policies promoting corporate responsibility (CR). The second explores opportunities for governments to engage the private sector in development. The approach advocated
by the report is that business efforts to promote development are or should be seen as core to being a responsible business.

A New Era of Sustainability: UN Global Compact-Accenture CEO Study 2010

This Report dated June 2010 states that CEOs around the world are starting to see the shape of a new era of sustainability coming into view. In the face of rising global competition, technological change and the most serious economic downturn in nearly a century, corporate commitment to the principles of sustainability remains strong throughout the world: 93 percent of CEOs see sustainability as important to their company’s future success.

This is one of the most significant headlines of our survey of 766 United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) member CEOs, extensive interviews with an additional 50 member CEOs and further interviews with more than 50 business and civil society leaders. The scale of this research is such that it represents the largest such study of CEOs ever conducted on the topic of sustainability.

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

The Road Ahead: The Obstacles and Pitfalls to New Jersey’s Implementation of the LSRP Program -- CLE

This ABA Section of Litigation Environmental Litigation Committee live presentation will take place on October 27, 2010 at Seton Hall Law School, 1109 Raymond Blvd,
1 Newark Center, Newark, NJ 07102.

Registration Deadline: October 20, 2010

This program will be an interactive seminar involving nationally known environmental lawyers, in-house counsel and consultants who will discuss the details and implications of New Jersey’s Site Remediation Reform Act, in particular the Licensed Site Remediation Professional Program. The impact of this program on environmental practitioners will be far reaching and extraordinary. From the manner in which environmental consultants will be retained and site investigations & clean-ups accomplished, to the ethical, work product and litigation considerations counsel will need to evaluate and address, the LSRP Program represents a sea-change in the way environmental counsel will practice their trade in the years to come.

European Union v. United States: An EHS Regulatory Comparison

This BNA Webinar takes place on Wednesday, November 17, 2010 at 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM (ET).

Topics: Environment, health, and safety regulatory programs of the European Union and United States have key differences and key similarities that impact a multinational company's day-to-day operations and risk management priorities. BNA invites you to join an esteemed panel of Enhesa experts who will provide a comparative analysis of these programs and practical solutions for how to address EHS challenges in both regions. The experts will provide examples of how two similar facilities, one in the EU and one in the United States, face pertinent EHS issues. BNA’s webinar is designed to help you:

- Understand legal and regulatory structures
- Gain insight on permitting (used, issued, updated)
- Identify the risks and liabilities related to soil contamination
- Learn about emissions requirements (MACT, emission trading, reporting)
- Examine chemicals regulation (U.S. program, REACH, GHS)
- Analyze risk assessment versus a prescriptive approach to health and safety management
- Deal with drug control, smoke prohibitions, and restriction of alcohol on site
- Become knowledgeable about accident reporting
- Consider implications of different enforcement practices on EHS management

New Library Acquisitions

Air Pollution
Air pollution control and climate change mitigation law / by Arnold W. Reitze, Jr

Environmental Activism
Right relationship : building a whole earth economy / Peter G. Brown, Geoffrey Garver ; with Keith Helmuth, Robert Howell, Steve Szeghi

Environmental Policy
Green leviathan : the case for a federal role in environmental policy / Inger Weibust

Heritage Sites
The world's protected areas : status, values and prospects in the 21st century / edited by Stuart Chape, Mark Spalding and Martin Jenkins ; foreword by Achim Steiner and Julia Marton-Lefèvre

International Trade
The trade-off myth : fact and fiction about jobs and the environment / Eban Goodstein

Legal Research and Writing
Environmental law practice : problems and exercises for skills development / Jerry L. Anderson, Dennis D. Hirsch

China Is Set to Lose 2% of GDP Cleaning Up Decades of Pollution -- Bloomberg

This report from Bloomberg finds that "China, the world’s worst polluter, needs to spend at least 2 percent of gross domestic product a year -- 680 billion yuan at 2009 figures -- to clean up 30 years of industrial waste, said He Ping, chairman of the Washington-based International Fund for China’s Environment. Mun Sing Ho, a senior economist at Dale W. Jorgenson Associates and a visiting scholar at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, put the range at 2 percent to 4 percent of GDP.

Failure to spend that much -- equivalent to the annual GDP of Vietnam -- may cost the Chinese economy half as much again in blighted crops, health costs and pollution-related expenses, He said: “The cleanup can’t catch up with the speed of pollution” if spending is less.

A double-edged approach by China to undo previous contamination and enforce stricter laws against new pollution would raise costs for companies in metals smelting, such as Hunan-based Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co. and Henan Yuguang Gold & Lead Co. in Henan. It would also benefit companies involved in environmental control, like Beijing Originwater Technology Co. and Shenzhen Green Eco-manufacture Hi-tech Co., said Chen Junpeng, an analyst at Donghai Securities Co. in Shanghai."

The 2010 Oil Spill: Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under the Oil Pollution Act -- CRS

This Congressional Research Service Report (R41396), dated September 8, 2010, finds that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill leaked an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico, damaging the waters, shores, and marshes, and the fish and wildlife that live there.

The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) establishes a process for assessing the damages to those natural resources and assigning responsibility for restoration to the parties responsible. BP was named the responsible party for the spill. The Natural Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA) process allows Trustees of affected states and the federal government (and Indian tribes and foreign governments, if applicable) to determine the levels of harm and the appropriate remedies.

Friday, October 8, 2010

Overestimate fueled state's landmark diesel law -- San Francisco Chronicle

California grossly miscalculated pollution levels in a scientific analysis used to toughen the state's clean-air standards, and scientists have spent the past several months revising data and planning a significant weakening of the landmark regulation, The Chronicle has found.

Thursday, October 7, 2010

Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers

This Report from the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), dated, September 2010, (NREL/TP-500-40745) comprehensively analyzes the key factors impacting the deployment of offshore wind power in the United States and includes a detailed assessment of the nation's offshore wind resources and offshore wind industry, including future job growth potential. The report also analyzes the technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and the potential risks and benefits of offshore wind power deployment in U.S. waters.

A Vision for High-Speed Rail in the Northeast Corridor, September 2010

This report from Amtrak dated September 2010 presents a possible concept for Next-Gen High-Speed Rail in the NEC, with new dedicated high-speed rail alignments, stations and equipment that can provide significant travel time savings and attractive premium service by rapidly connecting the Northeast’s major hub cities (Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C.) along with its smaller cities, airports and suburban hubs.

Upon completion in 2040, Next-Gen High-Speed Rail ridership would be roughly 5 times current Acela levels, with overall NEC network ridership at 3-4 times current levels. The system’s construction would support 44,000 jobs annually over the 25-year construction period and approximately 120,000 permanent jobs, while generating an annual operating surplus of approximately $900 million.

The economic value of improved intercity mobility, fewer highway accidents, reduced air service delays and other benefits would exceed the overall costs of the system’s development.

The Challenges of Oil Spill Response in the Arctic

This draft report from the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling describes some of the difficulties of spill response in the Arctic.

In the staff’s view, response challenges in the Arctic are important for the Commission to consider in its recommendations for the future of offshore drilling. This paper provides background information regarding the status of offshore drilling in Arctic waters, identifies problems with responding to oil spills in Arctic waters, and highlights areas for further Commission inquiry with respect to Arctic drilling. The two locations of offshore drilling in the Arctic, the Beaufort Sea and the Chukchi Sea, present different drilling conditions and response issues.

The Beaufort Sea drilling sites are situated on man-made gravel islands located two to fifteen miles offshore, in water depths up to approximately 100 feet.2 They are often linked to onshore facilities and are close to land and shoreline resources. The majority of the construction of the offshore gravel islands, however, needs to be completed during the winter ice season when an ice road exists between the site and the mainland.

The locations of drilling interest in the Chukchi Sea are much further offshore and, consequently, much less accessible. This area had until recently generated less interest from industry as a result of its lack of shoreline infrastructure and the consequent heightened cost of drilling. The current applications from the Shell Oil Company and StatOil are for seismic exploration and exploratory drilling at least sixty miles off the coast that would take place during the open water season from July to October.

These differences in environmental conditions and drilling proposals mean that spill response in the Beaufort Sea would potentially be more straightforward than spill response in the Chukchi. The Beaufort region has more developed and proximate infrastructure, so access to a spill area might be easier. However, the Beaufort drilling sites are closer to both the sensitive shoreline and the areas traversed by bowhead whales and whale hunters.

A spill or blowout in the Chukchi Sea area would be more difficult to access, let alone contain and clean up. Although Shell has pre-positioned assets dedicated to potential spill response in the Chukchi Sea, bringing any assets, both the pre-staged equipment and any additional resources brought from elsewhere, to bear on a spill in the Arctic would be more difficult than in the Gulf of Mexico. And once the winter freeze occurs, any spill would be impossible to access for purposes of response. On the other hand, any spill in the Chukchi Sea would be far from coastal resources, and oil trapped beneath sea ice would be unlikely to spread into marine ecosystems until the ice began to melt.

The Arctic areas also stand in contrast with the Gulf of Mexico in terms of the issues posed by deepwater drilling. The Deepwater Horizon containment efforts were complicated immensely by the depth of the wellhead and the high well pressures encountered at the Macondo well. Wells in both the Chukchi and the Beaufort Seas would be in far shallower water, which could make it easier to contain a blowout or riser leak. Shell asserts that well pressures in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas would be approximately one third to one half of the pressures faced by BP at the Macondo well.

Finally, although wells in the Chukchi would be similar to the Macondo well in terms of distance from shore, the human uses of the shoreline of the Gulf Coast are much more expansive than the human uses of the North Slope Coast.

The contrasts between these regions and between open water and ice conditions affect the nature of spill response and spill response planning. Many of the issues highlighted in this paper apply to both the Beaufort and the Chukchi Seas, but the different conditions should be kept in mind.

The Use of Surface and Subsea Dispersants During the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

This draft Report from the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling examines the issues raised by the use of dispersants in the Deepwater Horizon spill.

Dispersants change the distribution, not the amount, of oil within a marine environment. They are chemicals typically applied directly to oil on the water surface in order to break the oil into small droplets that can then mix with water below the surface. The dispersed oil is rapidly diluted, mixing both vertically and horizontally in the water column. While this alleviates high concentrations at the surface, it may expose organisms to lower, but more widespread, concentrations of oil.

The use of dispersants in the aftermath of the Macondo deepwater well explosion was controversial for three reasons. First, the total amount of dispersants used was unprecedented: 1.84 million gallons. Second, 771,000 of those gallons were applied at the wellhead, located 5,067 feet below the surface. Little or no prior testing had been done on the effectiveness and potential adverse environmental consequences of subsea dispersant use, let alone at those volumes. Third, the existing federal regulatory system pre-authorized dispersant use in the Gulf of Mexico without any limits or guidelines as to amounts or duration.

Faced with an emergency, the government had to make decisions about high-volume and subsea dispersant use within time frames that denied officials the opportunity to gather necessary information. The resulting uncertainty even fueled unfounded suspicions that BP was using dispersants without authorization from the government in an effort to mask the oil and to limit its ultimate liability.

This paper considers two issues. The first is how well the government handled the dispersant issues it faced in the absence of necessary scientific information and pursuant to a regulatory regime that had failed to anticipate this kind of problem. The second is how, in light of lessons learned from this recent experience, government procedures and existing laws might be improved to allow for sounder decisions regarding the use of dispersants in the future.

The Amount and Fate of the Oil

This draft Report from the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling finds that the federal government‟s estimates of the amount of oil flowing into and later remaining in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of the Macondo well explosion were the source of significant controversy, which undermined public confidence in the federal government‟s response to the spill.

By initially underestimating the amount of oil flow and then, at the end of the summer, appearing to underestimate the amount of oil remaining in the Gulf, the federal government created the impression that it was either not fully competent to handle the spill or not fully candid with the American people about the scope of the problem.

The absence of trust fuels public fears, and those fears in turn can cause major harm, whether because the public loses confidence in the federal government‟s assurances that beaches or seafood are safe, or because the government‟s lack of credibility makes it harder to build relationships with state and local officials, as well as community leaders, that are necessary for effective response actions.

This working paper first tells the story of the government‟s struggle to accurately estimate the rate of oil flow from the Macondo well. It next discusses the debate surrounding the government‟s report on the fate of the oil.

More extensive, peer-reviewed government reports, which will allow for greater substantive evaluation of government estimates related to flow rate and fate, are forthcoming.

In the meantime, this paper discusses some of the key government estimates with a view towards eventual Commission findings regarding whether flow-rate estimates should have been more accurate from the outset, and whether the government presented information regarding the amount and fate of the oil to the public in an appropriate manner. Commission staff believe that recommendations aimed at improving the quality of information provided to the public are critical to improving public confidence, and thus to the success of future emergency responses.

Decision-Making within the Unified Command

The National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling released this draft report finds that as of July 15, 2010—the day the well stopped flowing—the response involved approximately 44,000 responders; more than 6,870 vessels (including skimmers, tugs, barges, and recovery vessels); approximately 4.12 million feet of boom; 17,500 National Guard troops from Gulf Coast states; five states; multiple corporations; and untold hours of work by federal, state, and local officials; employees or contractors of BP; and private citizens.

The paper identifies situations in which responders altered, or operated outside of, the National Contingency Plan structure and suggests possible recommendations for improvement of that structure in the future.

Issues for the Commission To Consider: Scale and Structure of the Response: Was the structure of the response adequate for the nature of the spill, and was that structure put into place quickly enough? Role of the Responsible Party: Did BP exercise too much control over the response? If not, what factors led to the public perception that BP, and not the government, was in charge of the response? Interaction with State and Local Officials: Does the NCP appropriately integrate state and local officials in the response, and were such officials appropriately involved in this response? Should the NCP and existing contingency planning documents be changed to create a larger or clearer role for state and local officials in oil spill response?

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

The Gulf Oil Crisis: Enforcement and Claims Handling Update - ABA CLE

This ABA teleconference and webcast includes attorneys working on various facets of the BP blow out, will break down the civil and criminal litigation resulting from the Deep Water Horizon incident, where those matters stand, and where they may be headed. The panel will also discuss and evaluate the claims handling process under the Oil Pollution Act ("OPA") and the Gulf Coast Claims Facility, the fund administered by Ken Feinberg, including the protocols for the handling of those claims under that fund.

The panel includes:

• Craig Bennett, United States Coast Guard, who is Director of the U. S. Coast Guard’s National Pollution Funds Center, which is the fund created by the Oil Pollution Act providing money for pollution response and damage compensation and also responsible for certifying the financial responsibility of vessels operating in U. S. waters;
• Jackie Zins, the senior attorney working with Ken Feinberg who is the Claims Administrator of the Gulf Coast Claims Facility;
• Allan Kanner, a nationally known plaintiff’s attorney, with main offices in New Orleans, who has been retained as special counsel to the State of Louisiana regarding that State's oil spill-related claims, as well as counsel to private party claims against various companies, and;
• and as moderator, Jon Waldron, who had a 20 year career with the US Coast Guard, retiring as Commander, and was in charge of all Coast Guard response activities following the Exxon Valdez spill.

Date: Wednesday, October 13, 2010
Format: Teleconference and Live Audio Webcast
Duration: 90 minutes

1:00 PM-2:30 PM Eastern 12:00 PM-1:30 PM Central
11:00 AM-12:30 PM Mountain 10:00 AM-11:30 AM Pacific

What Lawyers Should Know About Going Green - ABA CLE

This ABA teleconference will discuss what lawyers should know in order to help prepare their clients to “go green,” including:

• identifying potential pitfalls,
• how to adapt for new construction versus rehab,
• understanding rating issues,
• exploring the various ways of incorporating "green" features into affordable housing and community development projects
• as well as the green initiatives at various federal agencies. Date: Thursday, October 21, 2010

Teleconference and Live Audio Webcast
Duration: 90 minutes
2:00 PM-3:30 PM Eastern 1:00 PM-12:30 PM Central
12:00 PM-1:30 PM Mountain 11:00 AM-12:30 PM Pacific

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Emerging Issues in Environmental Insurance - NYSBA CLE

This New York State Bar Association Continuing Legal Education program will take place on Friday, October 29, 2010 at the Affinia Manhattan, 371 Seventh Avenue At 31st Street New York, NY 10001-3984. Call (212) 563-1800

9:00 am to 1:00 pm

4 MCLE Credits: Professional Practice and or Practice Management

This intermediate-to-advanced level course has been approved for MCLE Credit in New York for all attorneys, including newly admitted attorney (less then 24 months) with one year's experience in this field.

Program Description
With renewed emphasis on enforcement of stringent federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, the regulated community is subject to ever increasing environmental risks and loss exposure. The insurance industry has responded with environmental insurance products which continue to evolve to help address these risks. This program examines the critical aspects of environmental insurance and provides valuable information on using environmental insurance as a risk management tool.

Leaders of key environmental insurance companies will provide an environmental insurance market update and an in-depth analysis of key aspects of the current environmental insurance products. Sessions will address emerging legal liability and evolving coverages as well as feature practical tips from national experts on handling claims to maximize coverage potential. Relevant case law and lessons learned will also be presented to help practitioners maximize available environmental coverage and minimize disputes with carriers.

New Library Acquisitions

The lost dogs : Michael Vick's dogs and their tale of rescue and redemption / Jim Gorant

The automotive industry in a era of eco-austerity : creating an industry as if the planet mattered / Peter E. Wells

Human rights and climate change / edited by Stephen Humphreys ; with a foreword by Mary Robinson

The natural fix? : the role of ecosystems in climate mitigation : a UNEP rapid response assessment / Kate Trumper ... [et al.]

Why we disagree about climate change : understanding controversy, inaction and opportunity / Mike Hulme

Energy law in Finland / Kim Talus ... [et al.]

Conserving the Commonwealth : the early years of the environmental movement in Virginia / Margaret T. Peters ; edited by Patricia Cecil Hass ; with an afterword by FitzGerald Bemiss

Earth [videorecording] / Disneynature presents a BBC, Greenlight Media, Discovery Channel co-production, a BBC Natural History Unit film ; produced by Alix Tidmarsh and Sophokles Tasioulis ; written by Leslie Megahey, Alastair Fothergill, Mark Linfield ; directed by Alastair Fothergill and Mark Linfield

Biodiversity in environmental assessment : enhancing ecosystem services for human well-being / Roel Slootweg ... [et al.]

Four fish : the future of the last wild food / Paul Greenberg

Brilliant : the evolution of artificial light / Jane Brox

Security of energy supply in Europe : natural gas, nuclear and hydrogen / edited by François Lévêque ... [et al.]

State of the world's oceans / Michelle Allsopp ... [et al.]

The politics of water : a survey / editors, Kai Wegerich and Jeroen Warner

Survey Results – Americans and Attitudes About the EPA. NRDC

A recent Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) telephone survey by Infogroup/ORC of 1,007 Americans conducted from September 10-13, 2010 shows the following:

More than four out of five Americans (82 percent) support the work of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, with 45 percent supporting it strongly compared to only 9 percent who strongly oppose it.

About three out of four Americans (73 percent) support “protecting the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency’s authority” to “take steps that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions from electric utilities and other major industrial Polluters.” Support is fairly evenly divided between “strongly” (38 percent) and “somewhat” (34 percent). By contrast, only about one in four Americans (24 percent) oppose the EPA’s authority to control carbon dioxide pollution, with just 15 percent in the “strongly oppose category.

Monday, October 4, 2010

The Deepwater Oil Catastrophe – Where Are We Now? ABA CLE

Date: Wednesday, October 27, 2010
Format: Teleconference and Live Audio Webcast
Duration: 90 minutes

Sponsors: The American Bar Association Section of Litigation, Section of Environment, Energy, and Resources and the ABA Center for Continuing Legal Education
1:00 PM-2:30 PM Eastern 12:00 PM-1:30 PM Central
11:00 AM-12:30 PM Mountain 10:00 AM-11:30 AM Pacific

One of the largest environmental disasters in U.S. history, the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico, has created a web of legal issues that may take decades to unravel. Of immediate concern is how, and to what extent, businesses and individuals will be compensated for damages sustained as a result of the disaster and whether insurance policies will respond to such claims.

This teleconference will feature a panel of experts—insurance coverage practitioners and an environmental economist—will present an overview on the insurance coverage issues and the economic impact of the spill, a roadmap for dealing with the substantial and diverse business losses suffered, and insight into other issues affecting recovery whenever a catastrophe like the Gulf Oil crisis affects a nation, including:

• the economic impact of the spill;
• a brief update on the government-mandated claim fund and existing or anticipated litigation;
• the insurance disputes that are likely to arise;
• a discussion of the panoply of insurance policies that might respond to these diverse claims, such as property damage and business interruption policies, all-risk and environmental policies, and economic loss policies.

Environmental Impacts of International Shipping: A Case Study of the Port of Busan

This report from the OECD Environmental Directorate, Environmental Policy Committee, Working Party on National Environmental Policies Working Group on Transport (ENV/EPOC/WPNEP/T(2010)2/FINAL), dated 30 August 2010, identifies (i) environmental impacts of the Port of Busan and of its interactions with the hinterland and (ii) measures that have been taken to reduce environmental impacts of the port by the port itself and the relevant public authorities The study is an input to the project Environmental Impacts of International Shipping: the Role of Ports of the Working Group on Transport under OECD’s Environment Policy Committee.

Gilbert and Sarah Kerlin Lecture on Environmental Law 2010 -- Pace Law School

October 18, 2010, from 4:00PM- 5:00PM in Tudor Room, Pace Law School, 78 North Broadway, White plains, NY 10603

Reception Available from 5:00PM- 6:00PM in the Student Lounge

Topic: Since exploding onto the scene in the late 1990s, the concept of ecosystem services has become immensely popular in environmental policy around the globe. Described in books, debated by scholars, taught in the classroom, lobbied for by environmental groups, adopted by the United Nations in its Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, and legislated in Congress, ecosystem services continue to generate significant excitement across the policy spectrum. This lecture, offered from the perspective of someone who has been working in the field for over a decade, will take a close look at why the concept of ecosystem services has enjoyed such rapid adoption in the policy world, whether the enthusiasm is justified, and where the field is going.


Jim Salzman holds joint appointments at Duke University as the Samuel Fox Mordecai Professor of Law at the Law School and as the Nicholas Institute Professor of Environmental Policy at the Nicholas School of the Environment. In more than sixty articles and five books, his broad-ranging scholarship has addressed topics spanning trade and environment conflicts, the history of drinking water, environmental protection in the service economy, wetlands mitigation banking, and the legal and institutional issues in creating markets for ecosystem services. A popular classroom teacher, Professor Salzman has twice been voted Professor of the Year by students at Duke’s Nicholas School of the Environment. An honors graduate of Yale and Harvard, he has lectured on environmental policy in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Australia and Africa. He has served as a visiting professor at Yale, Harvard, and Stanford Universities, as well as at Macquarie (Australia), Lund (Sweden), and Tel Aviv (Israel) Universities and the European University Institute (Italy).

Texas Renewables 2010 Conference

Texas Renewables 2010 is an energy conference providing the nexus between all energy industry sectors. No other conference of its kind focuses on the renewable energy market, crucial government agencies and public institutions this renewable energy conference affords. Texas Renewables 2010 takes place in San Antonio at the Marriott Rivercenter, 101 Bowie Street, November 7-10, 2010.

Deepwater Horizon Response Consolidated Fish and Wildlife Collection Report

This Report, dated October 2, 2010, covers the consolidated numbers reported through the report date from noon to noon. These are the consolidated numbers of collected fish and wildlife that have been reported to the Unified Area Command from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), incident area commands, rehabilitation centers and other authorized sources operating within the Deepwater Horizon/BP incident impact area.

America's Gulf Coast: A Long Term Recovery Plan after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

This report dated September 2010, by Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus, who was selected to lead the integrated Gulf Coast Reconstruction Effort, focuses on three central requirements for recovery in the Gulf Coast: the environment; the economy; and health and human services. These three areas are inextricably linked - what happens to the ecosystem of the Gulf affects its economy and the welfare of all Gulf Coast residents. As the Gulf ecosystem is rebuilt, economic activity will rise, jobs will be created, and the region's health will improve. The report will also discuss the role of nongovernmental organizations and community service in addressing each of the three issue areas.

Friday, October 1, 2010

Implementation of the National Coral Reef Strategy -- NOAA

The Report to Congress by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration covers coral reef-related activities by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP or Program) between 2007 and 2009, and fulfills the requirement under the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 of periodic
reporting on the activities undertaken to advance coral reef conservation. During the period covered by this report, the CRCP operated pursuant to thirteen program goals organized under two themes: Understanding Coral Reef Ecosystems and Reducing the Adverse Impacts of Human Activities. These thirteen goals guided most of the funding and activities undertaken by the CRCP from 2007 to 2009, and the content for this report is organized accordingly.

The U.S. Coral Reef Task Force developed these themes and goals in 2000 when it produced the National Action Plan to Conserve Coral Reefs. A National Action Strategy, published in 2002, put forth a strategy to achieve the goals listed in the National Coral Reef Action Plan.

Coral Reef Habitat Assessment for U.S. Marine Protected Areas -- NOAA

This analysis demonstrates that the percentage of coral reef ecosystem resources in MPAs and no-take MPAs varies dramatically by location. Within the five U.S. Coral Territories, the U.S. Virgin Islands have the largest percentage of their coral reef resources in MPAs (64%). At 15%, American Samoa has protected the largest percentage of any Territory in no-take status. The designation of the Papahanaumokuakea National Marine Monument has had a dramatic effect on the protection status of coral reef ecosystems in the State of Hawaii. The entirety of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands have been designated as a no-take MPA, but MPAs cover much less of the coral reef ecosystems in the Main Hawaiian Islands.